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There’s definitely an amount of time that’s more okay. However I always recommend to not crate your dog at all since it can be very harmful and have a great negative impact on the dog. Hence I advice you to skip the crate.
 

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People who dislike crates usually have a personal aversion to the idea of caging a dog.
Sorry, can I ask what you mean by that? Of course my opinion is personal but it’s based off of dog’s behavior, needs and facts/studies on the subject. Then it’s also a cultural aspect since it’s illegal to crate your dog where I live and it’s viewed as animal cruelty.
 

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Could you share a study on the topic?
Unfortunately I haven’t saved all the studies I’ve read through out the years but these are some that I found on the subject for now.

The first two are written in swedish, hence I will post a small piece of the study translated to English. I don’t have time to personally translate it so the text is directly copied from google translate.

“Although studies of different ways of dealing with stress in dogs are sparse, research shows that animals that appear inactive under extreme conditions try to manage stress passively, rather than not being stressed. Other dogs can actively manage stress, i.e. be more outspoken (Horváth et al. 2007; Koolhaas et al., 2007). Inactivity can lead to misplaced (unwanted) behaviors, e.g. hyperactivity, outbursts in humans and other dogs and excessive barking (Kobelt et al., 2003). In a survey of 203 dog owners, Kobelt (2003) found a negative correlation between incorrectly placed behaviors and the size of the resting yard and walking frequency, respectively. An animal may try to adapt to a stimulus, e.g. inactivity, by performing an abnormal and repetitive behavior, without a pronounced purpose, a so-called stereotypy. Examples of stereotypes in dogs are excessive licking, chasing their own tail, spinning in circles, wandering back and forth and repeated jumps (Hubrecht et al., 1992; Protopopova & Wynne, 2014). A stimulus-poor environment that prevents the dog from performing its natural behavior is a common reason for stereotypes to develop (Schipper et al., 2008). In a bachelor's thesis, Olby (2017) conducted a survey with owners of 75 dogs in convalescence after orthopedic surgery, as the dog has a lower activity level and limited areas to move on, and found that both the incidence of stereotypical and misplaced behaviors increased.“ https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/16752/1/berg_l_et_al_200309.pdf


”Stress can be triggered if the dog's movement possibilities are limited, for example if it is tied up or stays in a kennel or cage for longer periods, but also if it is allowed to be in the garden without being allowed to go out and walk (6, 12). Likewise, if they are left alone too often and for too long, do not feel sufficient belonging to the family or do not have enough to do, they feel lonely and bored.
[...]
Learned helplessness means that the dog experiences that, whatever it does, it can not affect its situation. It gives up after a while and stops even trying, no matter how unpleasant and horrible the situation is (6, 8, 14). The stressful experience of completely lacking control over discomfort destroys the dog's ability to later learn that control may be possible, and despite the possibility of being able to handle the situation, the dog chooses to be exposed to the stressor. According to Jensen P. (1996), a dog like this is very stressed (8). The dog then shows symptoms such as impaired initiative, lack of spontaneous activity, apathy, difficulty learning that it is profitable to fight, reduced aggression, lack of appetite, weight loss, hyposexuality, decreased social behavior and poorer immune system. Situations that can contribute to the dog learning helplessness are if it is subjected to one or more shocks, or if it is trapped in a cage, resting yard or is chained or tied up for longer than short periods. Even abuse or harsh and authoritarian upbringing and training, many bans and few permits can lead to it, as well as bullying or prolonged pain conditions (6)”
https://stud.epsilon.slu.se/10767/1/petersson_h_170913.pdf

Keeping Dogs In Kennels Can Literally Drive Them Crazy

https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/43747/Sonntag_Key_2014.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

https://www.peta.org/issues/animal-companion-issues/cruel-practices/crating/
 

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What I meant was I have literally talked to dozens of people about crate training and they blatantly say something like 'I don't like the idea of putting my puppy in a cage'. But at the same time, the reason why I am talking to them is they are stressed about behaviors like 'I'm just trying to sit on the couch and my puppy is biting me' or 'my puppy runs all over the house and I don't even see where he pees'.
To be fair I understand that people don’t want to put their dog in a small cage just to prevent behaviors that bother us humans. And there are other ways to deal with these issues that are better for the dog. On the other hand I’ve talked to dozen of owners that need help with their dog that shows clear signs of distress, under-stimulation, discomfort and separation anxiety, meanwhile they’re crating their dogs for hours each day and stand by that method.

None of them claim that crating is harmful. They do claim that excessive confinement of many kinds (even listing tethering and keeping a dog in the yard too long) is detrimental to a dog's physical and mental health.
How is that not claiming that crating is harmful do you mean? I will say that these might not be the clearest studies. However I base most of my opinions on the science and facts of dogs, behaviors and needs more than from studies. And common sense that is to say.


That said, I would wager that if you live in a country where no one crates their dogs, you don't see the positive outcomes of crating either
On the other hand my experience is that people are so used to crating that they doesn’t even consider other solutions. Coming from a country where no one crates their dog I can reassure you that they’re not needed (in general). People are often so infatuated by crating that they don’t understand the harm it causes the dog and the way it confines the dog from their natural behavior. They don’t see the positive outcomes of not locking your dog up in a small cage. As well as the negative affects from doing so.

Please enlighten me on how crates are beneficial for the dog. The only reasons I’ve been told is to give the dog a quiet, safe place and to keep him safe from harming.

My answer to that is that you’re perfectly able to create a safe and quiet place for the dog without the need of locking him up. To keep the dog safe you can restrain him to a safe space, a space that’s not as small as the dog itself which won’t allow the dog to move around for hours. Keeping the dog in a crate is a danger it self since many dogs try to escape due to distress or panic which can cause great damage.

The fact is that I’ve never heard a good argument for crating that’s beneficial to the dog. I can’t seem to wrap my head around how it would benefit the dog to be locked up in a small cage. Generally speaking. I understand that it’s necessary in some situations like injury for example.

According to me it’s an easy and comfortable solution for us humans since it allows us to avoid responsibility to properly train and take care of the dog. My thought on this is that it’s beneficial and comfortable for the human and therefore also have become a popular method. To consider the negative effects for the dog would result in higher demands on us humans and therefore it’s not explored or exposed. It’s comfortable to believe in crate training and therefore it’s not questioned.

It’s easier to shut the dog in a crate where they can’t make no mess, than to properly take care of them and train them.
 

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I want to add on to two of the links provided.

Keeping Dogs In Kennels Can Literally Drive Them Crazy
This one references a study done on 30 police dogs that live in kennel situations. They equate well-trained for police work to ability to settle in kennel environments, which has no correlation. I think if you look at ANY dog in a kennel situation (I work in a shelter), you will get a very different picture. Also, having worked with police and detection dogs, I can agree that they can go crazy... Because often times the training revolves entirely around the work, not on settling. I think any study done on police dogs living in a kennel environment does not give accurate perspectives on dogs that are crated in home settings. It's also interesting that the article references the Stafford shelter in Montana. I know that shelter personally and I even have videos they've sent me of dogs being kennel stressed. "Kennel stress" is a term I use very frequently and it is a very real thing. But again, this is referencing dozens of dogs housed in a wall-to-wall kennel environment. I would not use this to reference dogs who are crated in a home setting.
On the other hand these dogs are provided with a lot of stimulation, activity and exercise when not kenneled. A part from the general dog in america. They’re also kept in kennels which still allow them to move around normally unlike crates that really confines the dog in its position. I understand the issue with lack of focus on settling down but apart from the general dog they’re at least provided with a lot of activity and exercise.

Crating Dogs | PETA
PETA is an extreme activist organization. A lot of what is said in this link is extremely one sided or flat out wrong.
What in this article is wrong do you mean? I disagree with peta on many subjects but on this subject I totally agree with them.


Unrelated to crate training, but this article shows that PETA euthanized 90% of their animals in a Virginia shelter in 2014: https://www.washingtonpost.com/nati...4e9af2-c8fa-11e4-bea5-b893e7ac3fb3_story.html Their intake was around 3000 animals. They blame this number on the number of unwanted pets, no-kill shelters turning pets away.

But this municipal shelter (ie, they do not turn pets away and intake all surrenders) in the same state, 3 hours away, has an annual intake of about 4000-5000 animals, has had a 90% or higher live release rate since 2013.

Just showing that PETA is far from reputable, in the sheltering world or in the training world.
Yes this is very unrelated and irrelevant to crating so I don’t see the reason for bringing this up in this discussion.

A part from that it has nothing to do with crating a high adopt rate says absolutely nothing to me. It doesn’t take the dogs wellbeing or problems, rehoming, euthanasia after they’ve been adopted. A high number doesn’t alway mean it’s good. What’s important is the quality of the homes they’re adopted to. I can’t see how that would show that peta isn’t reputable.


Here is a far more reputable source by the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior: Housetraining Tips - AVSAB
The article is on housetraining, but they speak fairly on the use of a crate as well. It is hard to find a position statement on crating among American organizations because it is unanimously accepted that a crate is a great tool when used correctly.
Oh I get big warning flags from this source. Just by the fact that they claim that wolves are den animals.. This is in fact not true. The only time that wolves uses dens are when having puppies. So that is not a reputable source and contributes to misinformation. This article will debunk that myth Are Dogs Really Den Animals?

I disagree with them being okay with crating since I think it leads to reduced quality of life for the dog as a result of keeping it convenient for us humans, regardless if it’s properly introduced. And the “acceptance” could easily just be learned helplessness.
 

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I think the good of crating is it enables many people who couldn't otherwise to have dogs and get through the puppy stages without giving up and dumping the dog in a shelter or losing their temper and doing harm.
That’s my point. It’s a convenient and comfortable solution for the human that allows us to escape responsibility to properly train and care for the dog. In my opinion those people aren’t qualified to own dogs then.


It's also beneficial to a dog to be able to accept confinement for safety when traveling and as a necessity after medical treatment.
Yes, to train the dog to accept being in a crate is beneficial. However this doesn’t justify to daily lock up the dogs for hours. Training them accept being in a crate is not the same as regularly locking them in there for long period of times.

As someone who shows her dogs, it's necessary at dog shows unless you want to spend hours with your dog on a leash in environments where dogs are forbidden in restrooms and show cafes. IMO the day-on-a-leash is harder on the dog and everyone else (some of us really don't think your dog is as cute as you do and don't want it bugging us) than the dog spending that time safe and peaceful in their crate. And for that to be possible, the dog has to have learned to feel safe and at peace in a crate.
Yes I agree with this. Even though crates are illegal here, there are exceptions. You’re allowed to crate while transporting, if resting is recommend by the vet, when hunting, or during competitions. But even then you need to take the dog out every other hour.

There’s a difference between occasionally using a crate when needed, such as when transporting, competing, injury etc and to crate the dogs for hours every day.

What I’m talking about is the regular confinement of dogs in small cages. Not occasional use of crates when needed.
 

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Sorry. You're basically saying, "Mine Is the One True Way," and I can't agree with that. Yes, people can overdo crate use. Yes it's possible to raise a puppy without a crate. But your attitude that anyone who doesn't do it your way should never have a dog is pretty arrogant. Let's euthanize millions more every year because so few people are good enough to have a dog? I can't prove it but I doubt your average crate-trained dog would rather be dead or spend its short life in a larger-than-a-crate kennel at a shelter.
I find it to be an issue that crate training isn’t questioned in the aspect as it should be. Generally I’m against crating but I’m sure there are people that use crates in a more acceptable way or for necessary reasons and in those situations I’m prepared to agree with the use of crates. However, I’m against the daily lock up of dogs in small cages for long period of times.

I wouldn’t say that’s arrogant. I have my view on this method and my opinion is that it’s harmful to the dog. Hence, I don’t think a home where the dog will spend hours in a crate everyday is a suitable home for a dog. I’m sure you have your standpoints in dog care where you draw the line for suitable home/owners. Maybe you stand by the fact that a dog shouldn’t be beaten and therefore think that people who hit their dogs does not qualify as good dog owners? It’s the same thing, just a different opinion.

I will say that I don’t believe that people who crate their dogs consciously are mistreating their dogs. Just that they don’t know better and have been taught this way and since never questioned it. But regardless it’s an issue.

If we established harder demands on the dog owner in first place, as well as the breeder, it wouldn’t be as many dogs in shelters.

Then I also think that many owners could get rid of the crates without a problem. They just haven’t considered it to be an option. And if you can’t, then it might be time to look over the dogs well-being, if you’re so dependent on a crate to keep a dog.

If you need to compare the method of training with death to justify it, then it maybe isn’t such a good method. I’m not saying that all people who do crate are not qualified as dog owners, but that it might be time to look over and rethink how we keep our dogs. It’s really more about reconstructing the view of how to keep dogs.
 

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Can I ask then, how do you keep a puppy safe?
We crate a puppy at night, so hopefully we can get some sleep and while we are gone to keep them safe... say from chewing cords or ticked off siblings.
I don't think it's possible for any human to be with a new pup 24/7.
Keep them with me in a puppy proof bedroom or put up a puppy pen. Then you puppy proof the house or at least in the areas where it will be. Preferably you’re able to supervise the puppy the majority of the day. When not, you could put the puppy in a safe place like a room or puppy pen. I’m not against restraining the dog to a certain space. My issue is the small size of a crate.


Also, crating is good training for when they will be spending the day at vet or groomer.
Interested to hear how y'all get it done, thanks.
I’ve responded to this prior. Training a dog to accept being in a crate is not the same as locking it up for hours daily. To train the dog to accept crates does not justify keeping the dog in a small cage everyday for hours.
 

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I don't really see a moral or practical difference between confining the dog in crate, versus in a pen or even a room like a mudroom or bathroom. I mean, if the crate is tiny, sure, but a crate shouldn't be cramped. For a puppy, what's the real difference between a crate and a pen? The pen doesn't have a lid? That just means the pen is escapable for an athletic dog, and ergo less practical, not that the pen is more humane.
To me the difference between a cage that’s pretty much the size if the dog itself which confines the dog to it’s position and prevents them from behave naturally compared to a space where they can move and act naturally is obvious. The absolute majority of the crates I’ve seen are absolutely tiny considering the time they’re being used.

I really don’t understand how you can equalize a crate to a room or even a pen. Then the dog is allowed to walk around, move, lay in different positions, properly stretch. The small size of the crate is limiting the dog from engaging in natural behaviors which the other options don’t, therefore they’re more humane.

You can just ask yourself if it would matter to spend a day in a room or in a cage that’s just big enough for you to lay down in.

However when the dogs are not puppies anymore the idea is to give them free access to most of the house. However I see no issue with confining them in a particular room while gone and I can’t see how you could equalize that to a crate.


In a lot of situations, too, crates are the lesser evil. If you have a dog that's a real escape artist or is a massive chewer (of the sort you can't puppy-proof for, because they'll eat through things like drywall), it's not kind to let them destroy their teeth, get blockages, run away, etc. Of course one should try different management and training approaches to mitigate the problem, but in the meantime you can't just let the dog kill itself or destroy the house.
The dog you’re describing either suffer from extreme separation anxiety and/or under-stimulation or similar. Obviously this dog is under great amount of stress and shouldn’t be left in that condition. This is also my point, a crate will allow the owner to escape responsibility to properly train or take care of their dog since they can stop the behavior that affects them by shutting the dog in a crate. Meanwhile the dog does still suffer from the same issues, the only difference is that they can’t make no mess due to the crate.
 

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That said, it doesn't really seem like you are here to learn more about how crates can be positive
I’ve said that I’m prepared to agree with the use of crates if they’re used in a good way and for necessary reasons. But the daily lock up for hours I’ll never see as positive, no.

If I may ask, have you been to this country?
No unfortunately not. I get my information from reading about it, talking to people. Informative programs etc.

Have you ever seen a dog enjoying their crate?
Yes, I have. I’ve seen them use it as a resting place, a cozy place. However I’ve never seen a dog enjoy being locked up for hours every day. Just because they occasionally like being in the crate I don’t think it justifies locking them in there for hours daily.

Have you worked with police dogs?
No unfortunately not. Something I would like to do in the future though. I based that comment on that the article claimed that the dogs were properly stimulated.

You say you've "talked to dozen of owners that need help with their dog that shows clear signs of distress, under-stimulation, discomfort and separation anxiety, meanwhile they’re crating their dogs for hours each day and stand by that method." Are you a trainer who works with families in this country who crate their dogs?
No, these are people that I’ve talked to online. I’m no trainer and have never claimed to be. However I’m very interested and briefed in dog care, behavior, training etc. I also study behavior, biology, evolution and genetics of the dog, ethology and animal welfare. I don’t think you need to be an educated trainer to decide how you think a dog should be cared for.

I've personally seen hundreds of dogs enjoy their crates. Not just tolerate - but enjoy. Behaviors that indicate enjoyment:
-dog willingly goes in, and chooses to go in without prompting
-dog chooses to sleep in the crate when other options (ex. floor, couch, dog bed) are available
-dog shows loose and happy body language when in the crate, including ability to express full range of motion (ex. lying on back with legs splayed)
-dog chooses to enter crate in stressful situations (ex. loud sounds, strangers, etc)
-dog brings other motivators (ex. food, toys) into the crate when other options are available to enjoy those items
With this argument the dog willingly and voluntary would want to be in their crate, right? Even if it’s for 8 hours. Why would you need to lock them up then? If this is your argument then there would be no need to even close the door. But I can guarantee you that most dogs that would be left in an open crate would choose to leave it eventually. Because it’s not natural for the dog to be locked up in a small cage for hours and hours. Therefore you need to restrain them and can’t let them choose.

I’m not arguing that some dogs don’t like to spend some time in their crate. I understand that it can be a great resting place where they won’t be bothered. But just because they like to spend time there occasionally doesn’t mean they enjoy being restrained to a small cage for 8 hours.

Yes, a crate is a space, just like a room. But the difference is the size of the space. The small size of crates are unnatural and inhumane if used for too long or too often.

If a dog is in distress when loose in a room, but shows calm body language in a crate, then in that scenario a crate is more humane for that dog than being in a loose room (I know this dog, btw).
That could also just be because of learned helplessness. The dog might be as distressed but is taught that he can’t affect the situation.

There are many ways to manage a dog, and the crate is one of many efficient tools that can work. Of all the pet issues plaguing this country (there are many!), the use of crates is almost a nonissue next to so many others that exist.
I’m not saying that there aren’t worse ways to care for a dog. But just because there are other worse issues, doesn’t mean you should ignore the other ones. And according to me the misuse and abusive use of crates is a very big issue which causes a lot of harm. It’s also one of the most common dog care issue so therefore it’s not definitely not a “nonissue”.
 

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I thought crates were illegal there? Are these people breaking the law? Or were you abroad?
No, I’ve talked to people. Through internet.

The dog crate I have (which sometimes it gets used, sometimes not, depends on the dogs and the situations) literally can't be set up in my bathroom or mudroom, because it's bigger than the available floorspace. And it's not a special order or anything, it's just a normal wire portable kennel.
Okay but then these rooms are very small. I’m meaning like a normal sized living room or similar.


Sure, but dealing with something like separation anxiety doesn't happen overnight. The owner can't stay home with the dog 24/7 in the meantime, and you can't let the dog hurt itself, escape, or destroy the house while you're working on the problem.
No, I know but if the dog have that level of severe anxiety I don’t think it’s okay to leave them in that state. Then you have to make arrangements until you’ve trained on the separation anxiety.


It's easy to say "then you shouldn't have a dog," but that's a pat little non-solution, isn't it? Rehoming a destructive dog or an escape artist is easier said than done.
Hmm, or you could just learn how to train and care for the dog in another way.

Moreover, it's common for dogs to go through a destructive phase in adolescence, then grow out of it. In that case, a crate is one potential tool for managing a temporary situation, and can allow the dog and owners to enjoy long lives together by getting past that stage of life safely and sanely. There's a reason if you go to a dog shelter it's usually largely populated by dogs between 8 months and 2 years old.

I know that in Scandinavia animal shelters don't euthanize for space, but in the US over 1.5 million pets are killed annually by shelters. Working through an issue or managing it so the dog can stay safely in a home is generally preferable to giving up the dog.
Obviously there are other ways to get through that phase. This is also my point. Sorry for the generalization but this is my view on it and what I’ve learned. Especially in America you’re so keen on making it easy and accessible for everyone to own dogs. But the truth is that it’s often not very easy, it demands time, effort, knowledge and interest to care for a dog correctly. This is something that often isn’t considered and therefore a lot of people buy dogs and puppies who shouldn’t. Which leads to a lot of dogs being abandoned in shelters and to the over population of dogs.

I’m absolutely not claiming that all Americans are like this. But the view on dog care in general is often flawed, in my opinion.

To deal with this issue my opinion is to put higher demands and regulations on the dog owner (as well as breeders). And inform what it takes to correctly care for a dog in beforehand. What you need is more responsible people buying dogs, not more people buying dogs. According to me it’s not a solution to try and make it easier to keep dogs. At least not if it’s in a way that will affect the dogs quality of life in a negative way, which I think crating does.
 

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🤷‍♀️ No, you don't need to be an educated trainer to have an opinion on how to care for dogs. But everyone seems to be enough of an expert these days to make broad claims about training without hands on experience on the topic they are advising on. There are many things that dog professionals disagree on in this country. The general use of crates (yes, to lock dogs up in during the day) is not one of them. I am speaking from thousands of hours of hands on, professional experience. But if your internet conversations grant you more wisdom, then all the more power to you.
I don’t know why you’re focusing on me not having hands on experience with crate training in the states. Like I’ve said previously, I base my opinion on the facts around dogs behavior and needs. Being confined into a small space for hours and hours, everyday, immensely interferes with a dogs natural behavior, habits and needs. But you’re welcome to prove me otherwise.

I’m sorry but the fact that most American trainers agree with the use of crates or your thousands of hours of hands on, professional experience, does not matter to me or reassure me of any competence regarding the subject. I don’t know why you think it would if my point is that Americans have not understood the harm of crates or questioned the use of them in the aspect hey should. I don’t either really understand what you mean by the last part. Are you saying that there are not cases where the use of a crate itself is the reason for a problem? Or what is it I have been misinformed about through my internet conversations? Does this not happen do you mean?

Just a quick comment on something that was said in the video:
“A good sign that your dog is loving the crate is that he offers to go in again”.
Ehhm.. I mean, you do understand that the dog goes in there because he wants the treat and not because he loves the crate. If I taught a dog to stand on its hind legs and then they start doing it on their own, it doesn’t mean they love standing on its hind legs but that they understand what they have to do to get the treat.

Honestly, I was imagining that the crate ban was tied to an effort to reduce puppy mills or something, but that doesn't seem to be a problem in many European countries. So I am perplexed here.
We have other rules to control that. For example you need permission/license to breed three or more litters a year. Or to sell puppies from three, or more, litters a year. So without the license you can only breed two litters a year.

To get permission/license, you need to have competence regarding following:
  • The dog's behavior, including unwanted behaviors that affect the animal or keeping of the animal negatively.
  • The dog's basic physiological needs including needs for movement.
  • The dog's need for a good social and physical environment.
  • Stress in dogs.
  • Simpler infection control.
  • Supervision and care of dogs and simpler dog care.
  • Animal welfare legislation.
  • Breeding-related problems in the dog population affected.
And the location needs to be inspected and approved.

So if cages were legal it wouldn’t allow puppymills to exist either way.

But if crating is deemed so unanimously cruel, it should be easy to find research that proves this point. Not research done on working dogs that don't live in homes. Not research done on shelter dogs. There is research that shows the physiology of dogs living in kennel conditions is entirely different than that of dogs living in homes. My shelter participated in studies that show how even one stress hormone is present in drastically different amounts between kenneled dogs and owned dogs. So what we need is research done on companion dogs whose owners utilize a crate - the study size would be thousands, given how popular crates are in this country.
To be fair I don’t think you can assume that it’s not harmful because the lack of research on the subject. On the other hand I think you should be required to be able to proof that the way you care for a dog is not harmful or abusive. Not the other way around. With that argument you’re claiming that you should be allowed to care or handle your dog in whatever way you want unless you have a study that proofs it to be wrong. Not to apply all the science and facts about dogs to different situation to determine if it’s harmful or not.

And my point have also been that the use of crates have not been questioned as they should. It’s a comfortable thing to believe in so people don’t seem to be interested in finding out if it’s harmful or not.

However I did provide sources that indicated the harm and negative effects by the use of cages. Which you by some reason dismissed and claimed that they didn’t assume crating to be harmful..

“In a survey of 203 dog owners, Kobelt (2003) found a negative correlation between incorrectly placed behaviors and the size of the resting yard and walking frequency, respectively.“

“A stimulus-poor environment that prevents the dog from performing its natural behavior is a common reason for stereotypes to develop (Schipper et al., 2008).”

“In a bachelor's thesis, Olby (2017) conducted a survey with owners of 75 dogs in convalescence after orthopedic surgery, as the dog has a lower activity level and limited areas to move on, and found that both the incidence of stereotypical and misplaced behaviors increased.“

“Stress can be triggered if the dog's movement possibilities are limited, for example if it is tied up or stays in a kennel or cage for longer periods, but also if it is allowed to be in the garden without being allowed to go out and walk.”

“Situations that can contribute to the dog learning helplessness are if it is subjected to one or more shocks, or if it is trapped in a cage, resting yard or is chained or tied up for longer than short periods.”

How does this not indicate that crating have a negative effect on the dog? I asked before but you haven’t replied to that. I also asked what in PETAs article was straight up wrong.
 

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If I based my views on how people are and how the world works on internet interactions and observations, I'd have to shoot myself.
Okay so then you mean I’ve been misinformed. These issues does not exist? The people I’ve talked to have lied about their problems just because they’re on the internet?

The only solutions you've suggested are locking the dog in something other than a crate (which is still locking the dog up, it just skirts your local laws) and not leaving the dog alone. Most people have to work outside the home, and have other commitments that they can't take a dog along to, so the latter isn't really practical. So please tell about these other ways?
I’ve suggested that people should start taking proper responsibility to train and care for their dog in the right way. But I’m happy to clarify further.

Do you have to crate the dog because you’re house training your puppy? Or because the puppy needs to be safe?:

Don’t. The puppy should be supervised in stead of you relying on a crate. Create a schedule and take the puppy out regularly. Puppy proof the house and keep your puppy company, under supervision. The puppy should not be left alone when too young and before they have been properly trained on this. Therefore it is not a solution to shut the puppy in a crate so you can escape your responsibility. Getting a puppy is often hard work and demands a lot of time and energy.

Do you have to crate the dog because it otherwise will destroy the house?:

Don’t. This is probably because of under-stimulation and/or separation anxiety. You can’t just shut the dog in a crate to avoid dealing with these issues and ignore them, just because you have found a solution that prevents your life to be affected. The dog is not being taken cared for or trained properly and you need to change that.

If the dog is under-stimulated; start to offer a proper amount of exercise and activities through out the day. Does not two hours of walk a day solve it? Walk 3 hours. Or more. Start practicing mentally stimulating activities. Give the dog the right amount of exercise and activity.

If the dog have separation anxiety; the dog is distressed and anxious, you need to deal with this. Before you’ve been able to train the dog to properly be alone, you might have to make arrangements so the dog is not left while he can’t handle it.

Do you have to crate the dog because they’re getting distressed when left outside the crate?

Don’t. Just because the dog doesn’t appear distressed when in the crate, doesn’t mean they’re not. Dogs can choose to deal with stress through passivity and by “shutting down”. This can also be because of learned helplessness. They have learned that what ever they do, they can’t affect their situation and therefore they give up. In this case you should properly train your dog to accept being alone.

Do you crate your dog because they love their crate and they even go in there voluntarily sometimes?

Don’t. Just because the dog sees the crate as a nice resting place sometimes, doesn’t mean they like being forced in there for hours and hours everyday. You’re perfectly allowed to have the crate available for your dog to choose when and when not they want to be in there. If they love to be in their crate, they have the option to be in there. There’s no force needed to offer your dog a cozy place.
 

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The PETA article was wrong because it was full of absolute statements without a shred of evidence.
You can’t say that it’s flat out wrong just because it doesn’t provide evidence. However you might not consider it to be a credible source then, but that’s different. The article you linked on crate training made a lot of statements without a shred of evidence as well.. They also claimed things that are straight up false, which have been disproved.

It's not really worth debating with you Sunflower because you lack enough of an understanding of dog behavior to discuss this objectively.
Haha oh please tell me how you come to that conclusion. Intrigued to hear your reasoning behind this.

Was it just because I claimed that the dog went into the crate for the treat and not because they loved the actual crate? That comment was directed at the clip in the video where you can see that the dog starts understanding what she wants him to do and therefore goes back in the crate. Then she made the comment that this was showing that the dog loved the crate.

I’m perfectly aware on how positive reinforcements, positive association and conditioning works and have used this methods a lot when training. But please, explain how I lack understanding in dog behavior. I know I lack understanding in dog behavior, we all do, there’s always more to learn. But tell me more specifically what I’m lacking.

My opinion is that you obviously lack full understanding of dogs behavior and needs since you don’t think crates have a negative effect on dogs. But I won’t claim that it’s not worth debating with you because of it..

You brought up the idea that maybe folks in the country haven't asked the question of 'why crates' enough. I think that's a very interesting idea! So interesting that I emailed two canine researchers and posted the question on a FB group centered around canine behavior analysis. But here's the flipside... How much has Sweden asked the question 'why not crates'? It is worthy to consider that too!
To be fair I don’t think we have to question it since it’s not we who are risking abusing our dogs. However I of course wish there would be more studies on this subject. For me the knowledge and studies of dogs behavior is enough to understand the negative effects of cages. I mean we have no need to question it but of course it would be good.
 
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