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Should I train my puppy when they're at a specific energy level? And is there some guideline on how long I should train them for per session, or how many commands I should train them per session? And how many sessions per day?
 

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Baby puppy? Train when they are alert and looking for mischief. Training sessions should only be a couple of minutes (five at the most), spread out over oh... upwards of a dozen times a day. Either set a timer or grab a few treats and train until they are gone, and then move on, so that you don't melt their brain by going too long.
 

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Training a little here and there is great but don't forget to let your puppy be a puppy and PLAY with your puppy. Play will help your relationship. Increments of training tossed in while playing can be helpful, but keep play in there. Babies are not ready for High School and Puppies are not ready to be dogs (I have a 2 year old dog that is a puppy in many ways).

5 treats (small ones) and a clicker to mark correct behavior and the session is over. NO corrections. None. Not for puppies. Again.. babies.. so enjoy your baby.
 

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Baby puppy? Train when they are alert and looking for mischief. Training sessions should only be a couple of minutes (five at the most), spread out over oh... upwards of a dozen times a day. Either set a timer or grab a few treats and train until they are gone, and then move on, so that you don't melt their brain by going too long.
Honestly this is how I train all my dogs.

The youngest is 2.

Short with a handful of treats works well.
 

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Training happens 24 / 7 / 365. Whether it is a conscious effort by you, or not. Just something to keep in mind.

Of course, I will do short sessions in the typical sense. Usually for basic behaviours such as sit, stay, recall etc, and usually while I'm stationed at the kitchen table or on the couch.. those kinds of sessions. But I'll also capitalize on the many, many other opportunities and "trainable moments" that occur steadily throughout each day. IMO keeping a pocketful of treats on me at all times during puppyhood, *just in case*, will really assist the learning process. The intent is to instill a belief right from the very beginning, that treats can possibly be earned anytime and anywhere (not only at the kitchen table or couch). This way I can easily capture all of the spontaneous moments, and also generalization of the basic behaviours can eventually take place as well.

As far as number and length of 'structured' sessions. I'd say between 6 to 8 per day, for an absolute maximum length of ~ 3 minutes each time. Plus a similarly reasonable amount of spontaneous stuff on top of that. Aim to keep training fun, fresh and lighthearted, and never over-drill.
 

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Most of my training is the handful-of-cookies-and-few-minutes-at-a-time type, with the exception of things that have an inherent game component to them (e.g., some toy and disc skills) or behaviours/skills for which training sessions have to be planned out in advance because they involve leaving the house/property.

But even with those last two, it's usually 1-2 minutes of "training" followed by a break to "just" play (which is sometimes just chasing thrown cookies) and then a few more reps, etc.
 

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All my training is as we go, there is so many OB /attention skills to apply in just living in our home doing our daily schedule to take advantage of teaching skills and applying them. We do them everyday so plenty of consistent opportunity of practicing together everyday that is repetitive events for learning them. Focused projection is so natural for people when they on a task using the environment around them.

example: puppies follow you everywhere... doing your cleaning chores in and out of rooms. perfect opportunity to teach wait at the door put a baby gate in place. The puppy has to wait they can still see you at a close distance that is not over stimulating and easy to reward them at close intervals for waiting outside the gate and it's a quick training session for a short time of why your in the room to maybe put something up , make the bed and your done... Then you can switch it up that use given the command they can come inside the room with you and help you put things up or make the bed... I do find that when owners use actual task, and the environment, their projection, timing and cues are so more on point and exact as the owner can see it in their own heads..

adding " That all of your body will follow through of what your projecting to your dog" My dad always said that if I look and focs exactly where I am throwing the baseball my entire body will follow through in getting it there. And he was right has some really legendary moments in my youth of getting a ball from outfield into a squatted down catchers mitt. lol Best times with the dogs is the same is knowing where we going with a moment.
 
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