I think your requirements are going to be difficult to meet. First, because many shelters and rescues will not adopt to families who plan to keep the dog outside. Some will, I'm sure, but they will likely require that you have adequate shelter and means to confine the dog when you can't supervise. That leaves you with a) purchasing a puppy which you don't want or b) a private rehome, which may also reject the notion of keeping the dog outside.
My first suggestion would be a livestock guardian breed, as they are bred to work without the direct supervision of humans and are the least likely to be negatively affected by limited human interaction. But, you must consider a few things with them:
1. They need lots of space. They're bred to roam, so if you live next to a busy road or have neighbors nearby, that may not be a good option unless your entire property is fenced.
2. Some are not kind to strangers, even the ones you want on your property, such as delivery people, the people who come to read water/electric meters, or your guests.
3. They are not always kind to strange dogs.
4. They are not likely to go running with you or even actively seek out your company, so it kind of defeats your purpose of getting a dog.
I have seen companion type dogs do okay outside, BUT that was on farms where there was someone outside 90% of the day. When I was growing up, we had a huge Lab/Golden mix and a BC/Aussie mix who were technically outside dogs, but we farmed, so there was pretty much always someone outside. They were either walking around with us, riding in a tractor, or sleeping in the shop while something was getting repaired. We also had livestock that the herder helped with. They slept in the garage (and sometimes the house, too). They would absolutely get into trouble when life happened and we couldn't spend as much time with them, occasionally running off if we were dumb enough to leave them alone, digging holes, or finding porcupines to harass.
Unless you're also spending 90% or your day outside, I would discourage you from getting a companion type dog that is bred to work closely with humans because it won't end well and neither of you will be happy. The dog will absolutely get bored and bark, dig holes, chase the chickens, destroy stuff, run off, probably get hit by a car, or be shot. It's just not worth it. I know it seems like dogs would be fine with living outside since many of us are gone for 8 hours a day at work anyway, but dogs thrive from even passive interaction with us, like sleeping in the same room, being near us as we go about our chores, etc. It always seems to breed issues when dogs bred to work closely with their humans have to live outside.
Despite the advice you've been given, I know you're going to do what you want to do. So, if you do go ahead and decide to get your dog, some further suggestions:
1. Have a secure area to confine the dog, like a run or kennel that is dig proof and climb proof, if you don't have a fully fenced yard. This protects the dog from any predators that wander through, and you might also consider locking it with a padlock so human predators can't steal it.
2. You will need to provide adequate shelter, as well as shade. If you have brutal winters, an insulated dog house is a must.
3. Do not plop the dog outside and expect it to know what to do. It will have no concept of your property line. It will run if left to it's own devices. That's another reason to have a kennel or fully fenced yard.
4. Don't expect it to immediately behave around the chickens, regardless of breed or history with other chickens. It will need to be trained. It can be done, of course, and will likely be easier with a dog who has been introduced to chickens, but dogs don't generalize well. The dog will need to be confined, or the chickens will need to remain in their run until you're positive the dog won't massacre the chickens. And, some dogs can never be trusted.
5. Carve out time to fully interact with the dog, just it and you. Training, exercise, whatever, it will need your full attention.