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http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/73/abstract

Vanishing native American dog lineages

Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher email, Pontus Skoglund email, Raul Valadez email, Carles Vila email and Jennifer A Leonard email

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:73doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-73
Published: 21 March 2011
Abstract (provisional)

Background

Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far.
Results

We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population.
Conclusions

The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders.
 

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http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/73/abstract

Vanishing native American dog lineages

Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher email, Pontus Skoglund email, Raul Valadez email, Carles Vila email and Jennifer A Leonard email

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:73doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-73
Published: 21 March 2011
Abstract (provisional)

Background

Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far.
Results

We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population.
Conclusions

The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders.
I find it sad that this is the way it has gone, and is continuing to go, as those with 'native' dogs in all countries are pushed through the AR mantra (neuter all that breathes) and political correctness to disregard their stock for the 'pure and improved'.

On the canine genetics list earlier today was discussed a study which set out to find as many different haplotypes in the Poodle (all sizes) that could be found (diversity issue with Standards in the most danger). Two outlier populations that had remnants of nearly vanished bloodlines were identified at one point but then lost through seizure and neutering.

A large group of very rare New Guinea Singing Dogs were seized in PA last year and neutered prior to offer to all those who knew how precious those dogs and their contribution to a tiny gene pool could be as well.

It boggles when some can't/don't care to see how intertwined all these issues truly are and fall for simplistic 'pat' soundbites about dogworld issues.

SOB
 

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I find it sad that this is the way it has gone, and is continuing to go, as those with 'native' dogs in all countries are pushed through the AR mantra (neuter all that breathes) and political correctness to disregard their stock for the 'pure and improved'.

On the canine genetics list earlier today was discussed a study which set out to find as many different haplotypes in the Poodle (all sizes) that could be found (diversity issue with Standards in the most danger). Two outlier populations that had remnants of nearly vanished bloodlines were identified at one point but then lost through seizure and neutering.

A large group of very rare New Guinea Singing Dogs were seized in PA last year and neutered prior to offer to all those who knew how precious those dogs and their contribution to a tiny gene pool could be as well.

It boggles when some can't/don't care to see how intertwined all these issues truly are and fall for simplistic 'pat' soundbites about dogworld issues.

SOB
SOB, I just have to comment on how insightful your post are. You never fail to teach me something. Thanks!

A friend of mine has a dog that she says is an "American Indian Dog". It looks like a small GSD, sort of. Is this a breed? If so, would it have these unique native American mitochondrial sequences?
 

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GottaLuvMutts, I'll take that as a compliment, and thank you.

Native American Indian dogs were/are not a breed, but are a landrace. There would be regional differences in their phenotype as well. As I am in Canada I can tell you that here they were heavier coated. My OH is Metis - Cree/Iroquois/Ojibwa/French/Irish - and looking at historical pics at the Metis associations in Alberta you can see dogs that are coated similarly to a Siberian Husky, while South, they were smoother coated.

These landraces were/are our mutts, our pariah dogs, but not quite as selection was used. There was lots of European blood in them from the last centuries but they still hold onto unique DNA sequences. In order to preserve these landraces and allow them to continue there has to be acceptance of breeders that work outside of the promoted European mentored system and methods, as it is not their tradition, but who are still genuinely breeding with care and passion.

For comparison to your friend'd dog, there is a photo gallery and information at this site developed by some that are trying to keep these going: http://www.indiandogs.com/ http://www.iidoba.org/history.htm

I find this timeline story interesting: http://www.indiandogs.com/timeline.html

Other link: http://indiandogbreeders.org/

SOB
 

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Out here in Arizona, there are TONS of feral dogs running around on the old Navajo reservation, and I've heard by several people that some of the dogs are from the old Native American dog bloodlines. It's possible, but by this point they are probably mixed with so many different breeds, including coyotes, that I highly doubt it even resembles what it use to be.
 

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Out here in Arizona, there are TONS of feral dogs running around on the old Navajo reservation, and I've heard by several people that some of the dogs are from the old Native American dog bloodlines. It's possible, but by this point they are probably mixed with so many different breeds, including coyotes, that I highly doubt it even resembles what it use to be.
^^Yeah, that.
There are "res dogs" here, too, but they've mixed so thoroughly with the free-roaming (unneutered) farm dogs that, if there is any Indian Dog in them, the bloodline is so diluted as to be unsalvageable. I sort of doubt the original Indian Dogs would have made good housepets, so I don't know how much demand there is for a resurgence.
 

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I find it sad that this is the way it has gone, and is continuing to go, as those with 'native' dogs in all countries are pushed through the AR mantra (neuter all that breathes) and political correctness to disregard their stock for the 'pure and improved'.

On the canine genetics list earlier today was discussed a study which set out to find as many different haplotypes in the Poodle (all sizes) that could be found (diversity issue with Standards in the most danger). Two outlier populations that had remnants of nearly vanished bloodlines were identified at one point but then lost through seizure and neutering.

A large group of very rare New Guinea Singing Dogs were seized in PA last year and neutered prior to offer to all those who knew how precious those dogs and their contribution to a tiny gene pool could be as well.

It boggles when some can't/don't care to see how intertwined all these issues truly are and fall for simplistic 'pat' soundbites about dogworld issues.

SOB
What's you opinion on haplotypes? It comes up on my Toller list every now and then and the general opinion seems to be breeding for rare haplotypes would just be another way of skewing the population.
 

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It should be about balance shouldn't it though? If there is a rare haplotype I feel it is important to keep it, track it and hold onto it (barring the fact it is not one associated with disease in heterozygous form), especially in breeds where haplotypes are depleted and the majority of individuals are homozygous for the same haplotype (Standard Poodles). It puts them in a precarious position as with MHC you want heterozygosity. Now if everyone goes gunning for the rare haplotype, then it will skew a population, but remember it is only rare now as other haplotypes have been favored in the past - the populations have long been skewed.

Has this paper come up on your Toller list for consideration Raegan? http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=t20vn122n567551p&size=largest

SOB
 

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SOB, I always love your posts and find your perspective so refreshing. What is your opinion on the link between northern Indian dogs and modern-day Alaskan Huskies? Of course, there are all types of Alaskans now, from the very houndy all the way to more traditional lines that favor the original Inuit dog bloodlines.

This site is actually for breeders of Native American Indian Dogs (NAIDs) - a whole different group of dogs than the Indian Dogs that SongDog Kennels is promoting. NAIDs originated in Michigan with Majestic View Kennels and there is much debate about their history and the founder's methods.
 

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Thanks to you as well Nekomi.

I understand there are different breeders with different and conflicting philosophies trying to move forward with/preserve and/or recreate Indian Dogs. I can't offer an opinion on which might be 'more' correct in what they are doing. I actually have difficulty with the idea of trying to judge the 'best' and 'most correct way' and want to wish them all well in their endeavors if they are truly inspired by the love of their dogs and breeding for soundness.

In regards to the relationship between the Northern Indian Dogs and todays Alaskan Husky - by appearance they are landraces that probably crossed each others paths and blended throughout history.

This Alaskan Husky, for me, is typical (very like my girl):



Here is another:



This is an Indian Dog featured on the Song Dog Kennels site:



Do you see what I see ... not just in the eyes of those bottom two, but in the muzzle length, stop, strength and squareness, head porportion and shape, coat texture, etc. of all three?

SOB
 
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