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There's also viral vaccines that have a shorter duration of immunity and bacterial vaccines that last a long time (whooping cough is a great example), so it's not entirely a virus vs. bacteria issue. There's a lot we still don't know about immune systems and, from my totally layperson understanding of things, in many cases we just don't know why some immunity sticks around longer than others. In other cases, like kennel cough, there's so many stains and/or rapid mutation that it becomes extremely difficult to vaccinate for more than the most common forms of the illness.

Most bacterial vaccines do work the same way as viral vaccines, by introducing a killed or severely weakened form of the pathogen to teach the immune system how to respond when it encounters a live, healthy version. There are other kinds of vaccines - like how tetanus shots are actually based on the toxin tetanus bacteria produce, not the bacteria itself, but I don't think any of the common dog vaccines work that way.
 
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