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Sounds like your cousin really had a once in a lifetime dog!

He wouldn't be a new breed, because a breed by definition is a population of dogs who have been deliberately, selectively bred by humans to have specific physical and behavioral traits, and when bred together, they consistently produce puppies that look and act like the same breed. But he certainly could have had a unique combination of genetic traits that made him unlike most other dogs!

Many dogs have black skin and gums, and even black tongues. The Chow Chow is a classic example, with many of them having tongues ranging from purplish to blue to grey-black. It's possible he had a breed like Chow in his ancestry, or he could have just happened to have a similar genetic mutation simply by chance. I've never heard of a dog with solid black sclera (the white part of the eye), but I have read that it's possible for dogs to develop grey-ish or brown pigment there due to genetics or chronic inflammation in the eyes (I'm not a veterinary professional though, so I could have misunderstood/misremembered something). It'll be impossible to ever know for sure, unfortunately. Today there are genetic tests that can roughly estimate a dog's genetic ancestry (they're not 100% perfect but can get pretty close, especially in the most recent couple generations), but many of the dogs we knew and loved in the past will remain forever a mystery.
 
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