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According to this site, the last round of Parvo vaccinations for a puppy is at 16 weeks, and before that the dog shouldn't be exposed to places where unvaccinated/partially vaccinated dogs have gone. However, this is also the socialization period, when a puppy should be exposed to anything it may encounter later in life. What sort of environments can/should I take my puppy to before its last vaccination?
 

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Parvo risk is highly local. Some areas are endemic with low vaccination rates and risk is very high just out and about in neighborhoods. Some areas have very high vaccination rates meaning high herd immunity and relatively lower risk. Ask your vet and call around to other vet clinics too for their observation about parvo in your community.

Some breeds are more susceptible to parvo than other breeds for no known reason.

The puppy vaccines are given as a series because the pup cannot get vaccine acquired immunity until their maternal antibody immunity has worn off. Assuming mama dog was fully vaccinated. It wears off at a slightly different age for each puppy, usually between 6 and 14-15 weeks of age. So each shot is attempting to minimize the puppy's unprotected time. For many (but not all) puppies, the 12 week-ish vaccine "takes" so in lower risk areas, many vets are OK with reasonable public exposure such as neighborhood walks.

Socializing on private, fenced property with vaccinated adult dogs where only healthy known dogs have been present for the prior year is generally safe. Puppy classes at a facility that requires vaccine records and sanitizes regularly is generally considered safe. Carrying your puppy in public is generally safe. Meeting humans in their homes generally safe.

Places like open dog parks, high traffic apartment or condo complexes with low vaccine rates, busy public parks and walkways, and pet potty areas at hotels or highway stops are all high(er) risk areas.
 

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Socialization really should be called "exposure" since what you really want to do is expose your up to things, not necessarily let him interact willy-nilly with strange dogs and/or people. Sit on a bench at a shopping center and watch people go by. Some home improvement and sporting goods stores allow pets, so you can pop them into a shopping cart that you've lined with a towel, and wheel them around to see the sights.

As Shell said, avoid places like dog parks, or places where there are lots of dogs you don't know.
 

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LeoRose^^^^^ that is exact my definition of exposure.. Watching from a distance taking in all the sights, sounds, smells, and moving parts from a safe area for them. without having to interact with them... Being in the vehicle (weather conditions permitted) running short in and out errands around town is my favorite.
 

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That makes sense, my vet said I can let him walk around on the ground at 12 weeks
That's overly cautious, IMO. Puppies need to get out and see the world.
 
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