Most people use crates to train, today. However, the standard method we used to use:
1. Confine the pup in an area, put down newspaper everywhere. Put food, water, and dog bed in one corner.
2. You want to teach the dog to go to the bathroom at the farthest corner from the food and bed.
3. When the pup pees or poops, remove that newspaper, save a tiny portion of the soiled paper for the smell, clean the floor with enzyme cleaner or vinegar to remove the smell, and replace with clean paper. Smear the soiled paper - pee or poop - in the far corner. You are not try to smear any waste matter (altho it won't hurt), just enough for smell... and dogs have a great sense of smell.
4. The pup will go to the bathroom a few times a day. You want to clean it up as much as possible, and clean the pup, if he walks through it.
5. When the pup starts to develop a pattern of going away from the food and bed, start removing newspaper from that area, no more than a size of about 4 sheets per day, unless the puppy is consistent for 3 days.
6. If you leave the pup alone for more than 4 hours, then leave about 4 full newspaper sections. A pup normally won't go, reliably, on a single sheet more than one time.
7. After you've done this for a week or two, and the puppy is fairly predictable, then try to learn when he's smelling around to go to the bathroom, and take him in the backyard to the area that will be his bathroom, and have a tiny section of a freshly soiled piece of newspaper to tell him where to go.
8. When you take a pup outside, he will normally pee (if needed) within 30 seconds, and may not make it to his bathroom. If he intends to poop... and you'll begin to learn his different signals, then he'll sniff around more, especially after peeing. Guide him to the 'sample'
All our liters of pups leave us at 8 weeks fairly consistently going to the loo on the paper. We us the same methodas described by hanksimon.
If you do not have the luxury of owning one of our paper trained monsters, then this sytem will work well, but you need to ensure that you leave enough paper down if you are going out for any time.
Closing them into a crate when you go to bed and then releaseing them and getting them to the desired toilet zone as soon as you wake up, speeds this process dramatically. Similarly, if you go out, crate him and as soon as you walk in the door, release him and walk him straight to the desired spot.