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Hi, I'm new here. Let me give you a little back story -

Growing up I had 2 very different dogs. A terrier and a lab. Through my parents, I learned the "old school" methods of training a dog, which were effective for both.

(oh, and this will be long.)

Now I'm in my 20s, live on my own, and I still have the terrier (lily) - now a senior dog and very well trained, still very active. I got a puppy (cricket) who is now 7 months old, mystery rescue mutt, and around 40 lbs. I tried the "old school" methods that I learned that were highly effective with my previous dogs. Some worked with this dog, some haven't.

While every dog is different, I'm having difficulty training cricket effectively. Namely, she turns bipolar when placed on a leash.

The problem that I experience is when she's on the leash and sees a stranger, she barks loudly. Her ears go up - NOT her hackles, so she's not being necessarily being aggressive. She's a pretty timid dog in general, but the freaking out when ON the leash has got to go. A few No's usually make her stop, but I would like for people to not be scared of her. When she's off the leash, she doesn't bark at people, and will approach them with her tail wagging. I can't figure out why she's flipping out when she's on the leash, but not when off.

I frequent a dog park 1 or 2 times a week weather permitting. Cricket, who's timid, not my alpha dog, not toy possesive or possesive of me at home suddenly turns highly toy possesive and territorial. She's been taken to a dog park since she was old enough, and this behavior only started about a month ago. If I sit down and another dog approaches, she'll stop what she's doing and start nipping. If another dog takes "her" ball or gets anywhere near it, she'll start nipping. The only solution that I have is to remove the ball, (hard to do in a dog park where there's a million) or flat out leave. I hate having to remove my terrier from the dog park early when she's done nothing wrong.

So in short: she's a submissive to a senior terrier, barks like there's a 5 alarm fire at humans when she's on her leash, is friendly off the leash, and turns into a bully when there's a ball involved outside of my apartment.
 

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Well, let's think about this for a moment...welcome to our forum btw.
...she turns bipolar when placed on a leash.

The problem that I experience is when she's on the leash and sees a stranger, she barks loudly...

...A few No's usually make her stop...
Consider the above one polar. Now consider the second polar...

When she's off the leash, she doesn't bark at people, and will approach them with her tail wagging.
Besides the leash being attached in the first polar, what's different?

You punish the dog when on leash. Your dog is bipolar because you've given her or continue to give her a reason to be behave differently while on leash. Stop doing that.

You need to change the dog's association when the leash is on. You do that by controlling the distance and the consequence for her behavior.

The distance you choose should be as close as you're dog is willing to offer appropriate (to you) behavior. You control this distance, so if the dog begins to behave inappropriately (to you), slap yourself in the face and ask yourself why did I let that happen? Add distance and try again.

Next, you'll need to change the dog's association. This will take time and your patience. The more you screw up on the distance part, the more time and patience you'll need. How do you change the association? You pair the scenario with something the dog finds pleasurable. I would suggest food.

In the beginning you won't ask for any specific behavior. You're dog will be at an appropriate distance and should be willing to offer behaviors that you find appropriate. Pick one and reward that. It can be any behavior that you approve including all of them.

Given time and patience, and once you notice your dog voluntarily offering the behaviors you've rewarded, you can begin asking for them. At the same time you can work on narrowing the distance.

Depending on how ingrained the association is with the leash the total process can take just a few minutes or it can take days and/or weeks with repetition.

...suddenly turns highly toy possesive and territorial. She's been taken to a dog park since she was old enough, and this behavior only started about a month ago. If I sit down and another dog approaches, she'll stop what she's doing and start nipping. If another dog takes "her" ball or gets anywhere near it, she'll start nipping.
There are two schools of thoughts here...interfere or not. I'm from the school of not *IF* I know the dogs in question (their preferences and bite inhibition) and really, the other dog decides it for me (whether they want the interaction or not). Does this sound like something I can control at a dog park? No. So this is the worst possible training scenario, you're best option is to remove the dog from the park to work on strategies that will better prepare him for being approved socially at the dog park.

These strategies include practicing no free lunch (or NILIF - see sticky), working on impulse control (see Zen sticky and I would adapt it onto many different resources), and similar to what was done in the leash frustration suggestion, desensitize and counter condition interactions with other dogs (preferably new, known dogs one on one).
 
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