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Lots of times people also lump the Great Pyrenees and Kuvasz with those three, but honestly the former two are too different (to me) to confuse them with the rest. I too have trouble telling the Tatra, Maremma and Cuvac apart. The reply underneath is not based on the pictures you added ;) I don't think it's possible to name general differences based on random individuals, one from each breed, who may or may not fit the breed standard properly. I used the Dutch Kennel Club's website and Dutch breed clubs' website for reference. Here are links (don't mind the Dutch, the pictures are more important to you :p)
Tatra: Tatra sheepdog
Maremma: Maremmano-Abruzzese
Cuvac: Slovensky Cuvac, club website

I'd say the Tatra is the 'burliest' of the bunch, the heaviest looking. It is also the largest (in weight). Another difference is that the ears appear to be lower set than the ears of the other two. It's color is always pure white; no sheen of other colors is permitted in the coat.

The Cuvac is the smallest of the three (in hight) but only by a little. In looks it is similar to the Tatra, but is lighter in built. Maybe it's just me, but the ears seem more... flappy or something. Like a labrador's, only less triangular, rounder and bigger.

The Maremma is hard to tell, because there are different types in the breed. In English its name is Maremma sheepdog, a nice short name, but not doing the breed justice. In my language it's called 'Berghond van de Maremmen en Abruzzen', which comes closer to what the Italians call their breed: Cane Pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese. In other words, the herder's dog of Maremma and Abruzze. There were two breeds once, one that lived in the region of Abruzze and one that lived in the region of Maremma. Over time, people decided to just lump the two together since they looked alike and performed the same job. Truth is, the Abruzze type dog is bigger, 'rougher' in appearance, 'mollossoid', while the Maremma type dog is smaller, has a less thick coat and smaller manes, does not have to be totally white and is 'lupoid'. (not sure what 'mollossoid' and 'lupoid' mean exactly) The Maremma type is usually the showdog, the Abruzze type is the working dog, according to the breed club site.
 
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