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I don't really see a moral or practical difference between confining the dog in crate, versus in a pen or even a room like a mudroom or bathroom. I mean, if the crate is tiny, sure, but a crate shouldn't be cramped. For a puppy, what's the real difference between a crate and a pen? The pen doesn't have a lid? That just means the pen is escapable for an athletic dog, and ergo less practical, not that the pen is more humane.

I'm sure there are people whose crate use is abusive, but I don't think crates are, in and of themselves, abusive. In a lot of situations, too, crates are the lesser evil. If you have a dog that's a real escape artist or is a massive chewer (of the sort you can't puppy-proof for, because they'll eat through things like drywall), it's not kind to let them destroy their teeth, get blockages, run away, etc. Of course one should try different management and training approaches to mitigate the problem, but in the meantime you can't just let the dog kill itself or destroy the house.
 

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I have taken in a street puppy who I assume is about 2 months old, I have taken him to the vet to get his shots and his next shots are next week.

I have opted to crate train him and he is doing super well, he slept in his crate the very first night without a problem, he had an accident once but that was my fault for expanding the crate partition. I have done research and learned that puppies can go about 2-3 hours without having accidents depending on their age, however, I was wonder how long can I crate him during the day? As soon as I wake up, I take him out to do his business and he will relieve himself, I will feed and give water after he has done his business. Afterwards, I will play with him for around 30 mins and take him out again until he does his business. Once he has releived himself, I will put him up in his crate and take him out every 1-2 hours and put him back in. I will play with him in the evening and feed him again. My question is there a certain amount of time he can spend in his crate throughout the day?

Thanks in advance for any advice.
The amount of time in a crate that is right for a dog varies. Some puppies are very non-destructive and learn to settle quickly, so they don't need to be crated as often. Others will eat walls and run circles around the house and be unholy terrors no matter how much mental and physical stimulation they get, so they need to spend a little more time in confinement.

For my dog, he was usually crate for 16 hours a day as a pup (8 hours at night, 8 hours while we were away at work). Other than that, he was generally pretty trustworthy as long as we were in the house (we got him at 6 months old, though, so a bit more mature). But, if your pup can't be trusted to not eat furniture, you might have to crate him when you do things like shower, cook, or anything where you can't 100% be watching the pup.

It doesn't have to be that way forever, though, just until your pup learns proper manners. My dog now spends the majority of his time free, but he gradually earned that freedom over the course of a few years of not eating furniture or books.

So, give your pup as much free, outside of the crate time as you can, but also use the crate when he needs it. It's going to depend entirely on your dog!
 

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(I don't really see a moral or practical difference between confining the dog in crate, versus in a pen or even a room like a mudroom or bathroom.)

It may be in the general idea of a crate.. big enough to stand and lie down, that's kinda it. Pens and rooms are usually big enough to move around in.
Willow's pen is good size...and yes, we had to put a top on.
Just a different perception, perhaps. Crates, rooms or pens, what ever it takes to keep a pup safe. And I'm assuming most people are using them mostly for puppies, or new adoptions. Probably a rare occurrence that an adult dog needs one "full time".
 

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It may be in the general idea of a crate.. big enough to stand and lie down, that's kinda it.
Sure, I think that's the advice for crate size (or to use a divider to make a larger crate that size) if you have a difficult-to-housetrain dog, because they won't dirty where they have to lay, so you can get them in the habit of not relieving themselves indoors when left unattended. But for a dog that's already got the concept of housetraining, I don't see any reason the crate has to be that small.
 

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I don't really see a moral or practical difference between confining the dog in crate, versus in a pen or even a room like a mudroom or bathroom. I mean, if the crate is tiny, sure, but a crate shouldn't be cramped. For a puppy, what's the real difference between a crate and a pen? The pen doesn't have a lid? That just means the pen is escapable for an athletic dog, and ergo less practical, not that the pen is more humane.
To me the difference between a cage that’s pretty much the size if the dog itself which confines the dog to it’s position and prevents them from behave naturally compared to a space where they can move and act naturally is obvious. The absolute majority of the crates I’ve seen are absolutely tiny considering the time they’re being used.

I really don’t understand how you can equalize a crate to a room or even a pen. Then the dog is allowed to walk around, move, lay in different positions, properly stretch. The small size of the crate is limiting the dog from engaging in natural behaviors which the other options don’t, therefore they’re more humane.

You can just ask yourself if it would matter to spend a day in a room or in a cage that’s just big enough for you to lay down in.

However when the dogs are not puppies anymore the idea is to give them free access to most of the house. However I see no issue with confining them in a particular room while gone and I can’t see how you could equalize that to a crate.


In a lot of situations, too, crates are the lesser evil. If you have a dog that's a real escape artist or is a massive chewer (of the sort you can't puppy-proof for, because they'll eat through things like drywall), it's not kind to let them destroy their teeth, get blockages, run away, etc. Of course one should try different management and training approaches to mitigate the problem, but in the meantime you can't just let the dog kill itself or destroy the house.
The dog you’re describing either suffer from extreme separation anxiety and/or under-stimulation or similar. Obviously this dog is under great amount of stress and shouldn’t be left in that condition. This is also my point, a crate will allow the owner to escape responsibility to properly train or take care of their dog since they can stop the behavior that affects them by shutting the dog in a crate. Meanwhile the dog does still suffer from the same issues, the only difference is that they can’t make no mess due to the crate.
 

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I think we come from vastly different cultures and short of showing you hundreds of videos of dogs very contently enjoying their crate, I don't know what to say?

I am very open minded to the idea of not crating dogs. If this country banned crates tomorrow, I would not be out there protesting. I would make better use of pens, baby gates, tethers, etc. That said, it doesn't really seem like you are here to learn more about how crates can be positive. You've made some pretty general statements correlating use of crates to irresponsible pet ownership.

If I may ask, have you been to this country? Have you ever seen a dog enjoying their crate? Have you worked with police dogs? If not, you are making broad assumptions about a few things here. (for example, assuming police dogs receive stimulation on par with pet dogs... ) You say you've "talked to dozen of owners that need help with their dog that shows clear signs of distress, under-stimulation, discomfort and separation anxiety, meanwhile they’re crating their dogs for hours each day and stand by that method." Are you a trainer who works with families in this country who crate their dogs?
 

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I'll take one more stab at sharing a different perspective than yours - not to convince you to like crates or use them, but perhaps to help you see that not all use of crates (even for 8 hours during the day) are detrimental do the dog. No sentiments, just facts.

I've personally seen hundreds of dogs enjoy their crates. Not just tolerate - but enjoy. Behaviors that indicate enjoyment:
-dog willingly goes in, and chooses to go in without prompting
-dog chooses to sleep in the crate when other options (ex. floor, couch, dog bed) are available
-dog shows loose and happy body language when in the crate, including ability to express full range of motion (ex. lying on back with legs splayed)
-dog chooses to enter crate in stressful situations (ex. loud sounds, strangers, etc)
-dog brings other motivators (ex. food, toys) into the crate when other options are available to enjoy those items

A crate is a space, just like a room or a pen or a hallway blocked off by a gate. In behavior, management of space is an antecedent. It can function as an establishing operation (ex. dog wants more space and movement after being crated), or an abolishing operation (ex. decrease the dog's desire to be in confinement). I agree that if crating causes an excessive desire for space and movement, or causes the dog to want confinement less and less, then crating is punishing and inhumane for that dog. However, if a dog is crated and the dog shows no change in behavior (ex. not more or less willing to be crated next time), then the crate is not punishing. If the dog shows an increase in behavior (ex. chooses to enter crate more and spend more time in it), then the crate is rewarding. ALL scenarios exist in the use of crates. The crate in itself is no more or less punishing than any other setup. This is in contrast to other tools that are banned in other countries (ex. shock collar), which by design is a punishing tool used to decrease behaviors. When discussing behavior, the learner decides if a stimulus is punishing. IE, It is less useful for people to say "crates are bad" than to observe the behaviors of the dog that is crated. There are many dogs who find crates punishing. But there are also many dogs who find crates reinforcing. If a dog is in distress when loose in a room, but shows calm body language in a crate, then in that scenario a crate is more humane for that dog than being in a loose room (I know this dog, btw).

Here's my opinion. I could care less if crates are banned tomorrow. Puppies and dogs need management, which varies depending on their behavior and the household they live in. There are many ways to manage a dog, and the crate is one of many efficient tools that can work. Of all the pet issues plaguing this country (there are many!), the use of crates is almost a nonissue next to so many others that exist.
 

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On the other hand I’ve talked to dozen of owners that need help with their dog that shows clear signs of distress, under-stimulation, discomfort and separation anxiety, meanwhile they’re crating their dogs for hours each day and stand by that method.
The absolute majority of the crates I’ve seen are absolutely tiny considering the time they’re being used.
I thought crates were illegal there? Are these people breaking the law? Or were you abroad?

However when the dogs are not puppies anymore the idea is to give them free access to most of the house. However I see no issue with confining them in a particular room while gone and I can’t see how you could equalize that to a crate.
The dog crate I have (which sometimes it gets used, sometimes not, depends on the dogs and the situations) literally can't be set up in my bathroom or mudroom, because it's bigger than the available floorspace. And it's not a special order or anything, it's just a normal wire portable kennel.

The dog you’re describing either suffer from extreme separation anxiety and/or under-stimulation or similar. Obviously this dog is under great amount of stress and shouldn’t be left in that condition. This is also my point, a crate will allow the owner to escape responsibility to properly train or take care of their dog since they can stop the behavior that affects them by shutting the dog in a crate. Meanwhile the dog does still suffer from the same issues, the only difference is that they can’t make no mess due to the crate.
Sure, but dealing with something like separation anxiety doesn't happen overnight. The owner can't stay home with the dog 24/7 in the meantime, and you can't let the dog hurt itself, escape, or destroy the house while you're working on the problem.

It's easy to say "then you shouldn't have a dog," but that's a pat little non-solution, isn't it? Rehoming a destructive dog or an escape artist is easier said than done.

Moreover, it's common for dogs to go through a destructive phase in adolescence, then grow out of it. In that case, a crate is one potential tool for managing a temporary situation, and can allow the dog and owners to enjoy long lives together by getting past that stage of life safely and sanely. There's a reason if you go to a dog shelter it's usually largely populated by dogs between 8 months and 2 years old.

I know that in Scandinavia animal shelters don't euthanize for space, but in the US over 1.5 million pets are killed annually by shelters. Working through an issue or managing it so the dog can stay safely in a home is generally preferable to giving up the dog.
 

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That said, it doesn't really seem like you are here to learn more about how crates can be positive
I’ve said that I’m prepared to agree with the use of crates if they’re used in a good way and for necessary reasons. But the daily lock up for hours I’ll never see as positive, no.

If I may ask, have you been to this country?
No unfortunately not. I get my information from reading about it, talking to people. Informative programs etc.

Have you ever seen a dog enjoying their crate?
Yes, I have. I’ve seen them use it as a resting place, a cozy place. However I’ve never seen a dog enjoy being locked up for hours every day. Just because they occasionally like being in the crate I don’t think it justifies locking them in there for hours daily.

Have you worked with police dogs?
No unfortunately not. Something I would like to do in the future though. I based that comment on that the article claimed that the dogs were properly stimulated.

You say you've "talked to dozen of owners that need help with their dog that shows clear signs of distress, under-stimulation, discomfort and separation anxiety, meanwhile they’re crating their dogs for hours each day and stand by that method." Are you a trainer who works with families in this country who crate their dogs?
No, these are people that I’ve talked to online. I’m no trainer and have never claimed to be. However I’m very interested and briefed in dog care, behavior, training etc. I also study behavior, biology, evolution and genetics of the dog, ethology and animal welfare. I don’t think you need to be an educated trainer to decide how you think a dog should be cared for.

I've personally seen hundreds of dogs enjoy their crates. Not just tolerate - but enjoy. Behaviors that indicate enjoyment:
-dog willingly goes in, and chooses to go in without prompting
-dog chooses to sleep in the crate when other options (ex. floor, couch, dog bed) are available
-dog shows loose and happy body language when in the crate, including ability to express full range of motion (ex. lying on back with legs splayed)
-dog chooses to enter crate in stressful situations (ex. loud sounds, strangers, etc)
-dog brings other motivators (ex. food, toys) into the crate when other options are available to enjoy those items
With this argument the dog willingly and voluntary would want to be in their crate, right? Even if it’s for 8 hours. Why would you need to lock them up then? If this is your argument then there would be no need to even close the door. But I can guarantee you that most dogs that would be left in an open crate would choose to leave it eventually. Because it’s not natural for the dog to be locked up in a small cage for hours and hours. Therefore you need to restrain them and can’t let them choose.

I’m not arguing that some dogs don’t like to spend some time in their crate. I understand that it can be a great resting place where they won’t be bothered. But just because they like to spend time there occasionally doesn’t mean they enjoy being restrained to a small cage for 8 hours.

Yes, a crate is a space, just like a room. But the difference is the size of the space. The small size of crates are unnatural and inhumane if used for too long or too often.

If a dog is in distress when loose in a room, but shows calm body language in a crate, then in that scenario a crate is more humane for that dog than being in a loose room (I know this dog, btw).
That could also just be because of learned helplessness. The dog might be as distressed but is taught that he can’t affect the situation.

There are many ways to manage a dog, and the crate is one of many efficient tools that can work. Of all the pet issues plaguing this country (there are many!), the use of crates is almost a nonissue next to so many others that exist.
I’m not saying that there aren’t worse ways to care for a dog. But just because there are other worse issues, doesn’t mean you should ignore the other ones. And according to me the misuse and abusive use of crates is a very big issue which causes a lot of harm. It’s also one of the most common dog care issue so therefore it’s not definitely not a “nonissue”.
 

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I thought crates were illegal there? Are these people breaking the law? Or were you abroad?
No, I’ve talked to people. Through internet.

The dog crate I have (which sometimes it gets used, sometimes not, depends on the dogs and the situations) literally can't be set up in my bathroom or mudroom, because it's bigger than the available floorspace. And it's not a special order or anything, it's just a normal wire portable kennel.
Okay but then these rooms are very small. I’m meaning like a normal sized living room or similar.


Sure, but dealing with something like separation anxiety doesn't happen overnight. The owner can't stay home with the dog 24/7 in the meantime, and you can't let the dog hurt itself, escape, or destroy the house while you're working on the problem.
No, I know but if the dog have that level of severe anxiety I don’t think it’s okay to leave them in that state. Then you have to make arrangements until you’ve trained on the separation anxiety.


It's easy to say "then you shouldn't have a dog," but that's a pat little non-solution, isn't it? Rehoming a destructive dog or an escape artist is easier said than done.
Hmm, or you could just learn how to train and care for the dog in another way.

Moreover, it's common for dogs to go through a destructive phase in adolescence, then grow out of it. In that case, a crate is one potential tool for managing a temporary situation, and can allow the dog and owners to enjoy long lives together by getting past that stage of life safely and sanely. There's a reason if you go to a dog shelter it's usually largely populated by dogs between 8 months and 2 years old.

I know that in Scandinavia animal shelters don't euthanize for space, but in the US over 1.5 million pets are killed annually by shelters. Working through an issue or managing it so the dog can stay safely in a home is generally preferable to giving up the dog.
Obviously there are other ways to get through that phase. This is also my point. Sorry for the generalization but this is my view on it and what I’ve learned. Especially in America you’re so keen on making it easy and accessible for everyone to own dogs. But the truth is that it’s often not very easy, it demands time, effort, knowledge and interest to care for a dog correctly. This is something that often isn’t considered and therefore a lot of people buy dogs and puppies who shouldn’t. Which leads to a lot of dogs being abandoned in shelters and to the over population of dogs.

I’m absolutely not claiming that all Americans are like this. But the view on dog care in general is often flawed, in my opinion.

To deal with this issue my opinion is to put higher demands and regulations on the dog owner (as well as breeders). And inform what it takes to correctly care for a dog in beforehand. What you need is more responsible people buying dogs, not more people buying dogs. According to me it’s not a solution to try and make it easier to keep dogs. At least not if it’s in a way that will affect the dogs quality of life in a negative way, which I think crating does.
 

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Why don't you just try a playpen I think it would be nice during the day and will get your dog a lot of playing space.
Crate training if done right is a much better solution, but sure it's not for every dog you just have to make a choice, I personally start with crate training but if my dog rejects the crate I would use the playpen to help crate training but it's just personal preference, again if you have to crate during the day and it will take too long it's going to end up hurting the dog better to use a playpen. I don't see the playpen as an alternative to the crate but again it depends on how much time you have and if there is someone home at all times you want to see this post maybe it will give perspective on what you should use.
 

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Crate training if done right is a much better solution, but sure it's not for every dog you just have to make a choice, I personally start with crate training but if my dog rejects the crate I would use the playpen to help crate training but it's just personal preference, again if you have to crate during the day and it will take too long it's going to end up hurting the dog better to use a playpen. I don't see the playpen as an alternative to the crate but again it depends on how much time you have and if there is someone home at all times you want to see this post maybe it will give perspective on what you should use.
I agree the crate is not for every dog but personally I pefer the playpen it seems less cruel and I know you guys will get all amped up about this cruelty thing but this is a personnal view
 

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I've never used an ex-pen. This photo is from the breeder of my Story and shows what one of her littermates did with an ex-pen. I had another even cuter picture from another friend of her Rottie puppy doing the same (and even closer to freedom) but can't find it.
Candy-Expen.jpg
 

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I've never used an ex-pen. This photo is from the breeder of my Story and shows what one of her littermates did with an ex-pen. I had another even cuter picture from another friend of her Rottie puppy doing the same (and even closer to freedom) but can't find it. View attachment 262883
Yep, our new pup, Willow, did that on day two.
Solution...we removed two panels and made a lid. She still has plenty of room and is safe from herself while we are gone.
 

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🤷‍♀️ No, you don't need to be an educated trainer to have an opinion on how to care for dogs. But everyone seems to be enough of an expert these days to make broad claims about training without hands on experience on the topic they are advising on. There are many things that dog professionals disagree on in this country. The general use of crates (yes, to lock dogs up in during the day) is not one of them. I am speaking from thousands of hours of hands on, professional experience. But if your internet conversations grant you more wisdom, then all the more power to you.

To the OP and anyone else reading this and considering a crate for their dog, my recommendations are the same - the crate can be a wonderful tool if the dog is trained to enjoy it, if the dog shows no distress when crated. There are many resources that help you do this. Here is one by kikopup (no affiliation to me, just a great trainer and a great channel for training resources):

To folks feeling guilt over crating their dog over a work day, I recommend setting up a camera and seeing what behaviors your dogs are exhibiting when crated. If they are calm, enjoying food enrichment, sleeping, etc. then they are fine. If they are showing stress signals (heavy panting, pacing, digging, chewing the bars, excessive vocalization, salivating, etc.) then either the crate is not a good option or you should reduce the number of hours your dog is crated. Obvious factors to take into account - make sure the dog has appropriate exercise and enrichment prior to leaving them alone (crate or not).
 

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No, I’ve talked to people. Through internet.
If I based my views on how people are and how the world works on internet interactions and observations, I'd have to shoot myself.

Hmm, or you could just learn how to train and care for the dog in another way.
The only solutions you've suggested are locking the dog in something other than a crate (which is still locking the dog up, it just skirts your local laws) and not leaving the dog alone. Most people have to work outside the home, and have other commitments that they can't take a dog along to, so the latter isn't really practical. So please tell about these other ways?
 

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I want to add that, in all fairness, I do fine Sunflower's points to be interesting and I am not trying to argue for the sake of arguing. I do follow the science as best as I can, in my personal and professional training. I think it would be interesting if crates were outright banned, and like I said I would not be up in arms if that were the case (I could say the same for a lot of training tools). I would actually love to see a world where crates are no longer needed. And in my personal training I use a crate to teach skills that later allow my dog to be free roaming. That said, I've made it pretty clear that I have no issue with the idea of crates themselves.

I've tried really hard to find research surrounding the effects of crating on companion dogs. I've also tried to learn why dog crates are banned in Sweden. (The vet I work with has lived and worked in Sweden for years, so I'll check in with her.). I've read a lot of fair articles that debate the use of the crate. But there is nothing objective on the topic. It's kind of like the breed ban in the States. There is no actual science that supports it but there are laws on it anyways. This is in contrast to laws like the shock collar ban - there are tomes of studies that show the negative effects of shock collars, even as many people have gotten desirable results from the tool. Honestly, I was imagining that the crate ban was tied to an effort to reduce puppy mills or something, but that doesn't seem to be a problem in many European countries. So I am perplexed here.

But if crating is deemed so unanimously cruel, it should be easy to find research that proves this point. Not research done on working dogs that don't live in homes. Not research done on shelter dogs. There is research that shows the physiology of dogs living in kennel conditions is entirely different than that of dogs living in homes. My shelter participated in studies that show how even one stress hormone is present in drastically different amounts between kenneled dogs and owned dogs. So what we need is research done on companion dogs whose owners utilize a crate - the study size would be thousands, given how popular crates are in this country.
 

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🤷‍♀️ No, you don't need to be an educated trainer to have an opinion on how to care for dogs. But everyone seems to be enough of an expert these days to make broad claims about training without hands on experience on the topic they are advising on. There are many things that dog professionals disagree on in this country. The general use of crates (yes, to lock dogs up in during the day) is not one of them. I am speaking from thousands of hours of hands on, professional experience. But if your internet conversations grant you more wisdom, then all the more power to you.
I don’t know why you’re focusing on me not having hands on experience with crate training in the states. Like I’ve said previously, I base my opinion on the facts around dogs behavior and needs. Being confined into a small space for hours and hours, everyday, immensely interferes with a dogs natural behavior, habits and needs. But you’re welcome to prove me otherwise.

I’m sorry but the fact that most American trainers agree with the use of crates or your thousands of hours of hands on, professional experience, does not matter to me or reassure me of any competence regarding the subject. I don’t know why you think it would if my point is that Americans have not understood the harm of crates or questioned the use of them in the aspect hey should. I don’t either really understand what you mean by the last part. Are you saying that there are not cases where the use of a crate itself is the reason for a problem? Or what is it I have been misinformed about through my internet conversations? Does this not happen do you mean?

Just a quick comment on something that was said in the video:
“A good sign that your dog is loving the crate is that he offers to go in again”.
Ehhm.. I mean, you do understand that the dog goes in there because he wants the treat and not because he loves the crate. If I taught a dog to stand on its hind legs and then they start doing it on their own, it doesn’t mean they love standing on its hind legs but that they understand what they have to do to get the treat.

Honestly, I was imagining that the crate ban was tied to an effort to reduce puppy mills or something, but that doesn't seem to be a problem in many European countries. So I am perplexed here.
We have other rules to control that. For example you need permission/license to breed three or more litters a year. Or to sell puppies from three, or more, litters a year. So without the license you can only breed two litters a year.

To get permission/license, you need to have competence regarding following:
  • The dog's behavior, including unwanted behaviors that affect the animal or keeping of the animal negatively.
  • The dog's basic physiological needs including needs for movement.
  • The dog's need for a good social and physical environment.
  • Stress in dogs.
  • Simpler infection control.
  • Supervision and care of dogs and simpler dog care.
  • Animal welfare legislation.
  • Breeding-related problems in the dog population affected.
And the location needs to be inspected and approved.

So if cages were legal it wouldn’t allow puppymills to exist either way.

But if crating is deemed so unanimously cruel, it should be easy to find research that proves this point. Not research done on working dogs that don't live in homes. Not research done on shelter dogs. There is research that shows the physiology of dogs living in kennel conditions is entirely different than that of dogs living in homes. My shelter participated in studies that show how even one stress hormone is present in drastically different amounts between kenneled dogs and owned dogs. So what we need is research done on companion dogs whose owners utilize a crate - the study size would be thousands, given how popular crates are in this country.
To be fair I don’t think you can assume that it’s not harmful because the lack of research on the subject. On the other hand I think you should be required to be able to proof that the way you care for a dog is not harmful or abusive. Not the other way around. With that argument you’re claiming that you should be allowed to care or handle your dog in whatever way you want unless you have a study that proofs it to be wrong. Not to apply all the science and facts about dogs to different situation to determine if it’s harmful or not.

And my point have also been that the use of crates have not been questioned as they should. It’s a comfortable thing to believe in so people don’t seem to be interested in finding out if it’s harmful or not.

However I did provide sources that indicated the harm and negative effects by the use of cages. Which you by some reason dismissed and claimed that they didn’t assume crating to be harmful..

“In a survey of 203 dog owners, Kobelt (2003) found a negative correlation between incorrectly placed behaviors and the size of the resting yard and walking frequency, respectively.“

“A stimulus-poor environment that prevents the dog from performing its natural behavior is a common reason for stereotypes to develop (Schipper et al., 2008).”

“In a bachelor's thesis, Olby (2017) conducted a survey with owners of 75 dogs in convalescence after orthopedic surgery, as the dog has a lower activity level and limited areas to move on, and found that both the incidence of stereotypical and misplaced behaviors increased.“

“Stress can be triggered if the dog's movement possibilities are limited, for example if it is tied up or stays in a kennel or cage for longer periods, but also if it is allowed to be in the garden without being allowed to go out and walk.”

“Situations that can contribute to the dog learning helplessness are if it is subjected to one or more shocks, or if it is trapped in a cage, resting yard or is chained or tied up for longer than short periods.”

How does this not indicate that crating have a negative effect on the dog? I asked before but you haven’t replied to that. I also asked what in PETAs article was straight up wrong.
 

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If I based my views on how people are and how the world works on internet interactions and observations, I'd have to shoot myself.
Okay so then you mean I’ve been misinformed. These issues does not exist? The people I’ve talked to have lied about their problems just because they’re on the internet?

The only solutions you've suggested are locking the dog in something other than a crate (which is still locking the dog up, it just skirts your local laws) and not leaving the dog alone. Most people have to work outside the home, and have other commitments that they can't take a dog along to, so the latter isn't really practical. So please tell about these other ways?
I’ve suggested that people should start taking proper responsibility to train and care for their dog in the right way. But I’m happy to clarify further.

Do you have to crate the dog because you’re house training your puppy? Or because the puppy needs to be safe?:

Don’t. The puppy should be supervised in stead of you relying on a crate. Create a schedule and take the puppy out regularly. Puppy proof the house and keep your puppy company, under supervision. The puppy should not be left alone when too young and before they have been properly trained on this. Therefore it is not a solution to shut the puppy in a crate so you can escape your responsibility. Getting a puppy is often hard work and demands a lot of time and energy.

Do you have to crate the dog because it otherwise will destroy the house?:

Don’t. This is probably because of under-stimulation and/or separation anxiety. You can’t just shut the dog in a crate to avoid dealing with these issues and ignore them, just because you have found a solution that prevents your life to be affected. The dog is not being taken cared for or trained properly and you need to change that.

If the dog is under-stimulated; start to offer a proper amount of exercise and activities through out the day. Does not two hours of walk a day solve it? Walk 3 hours. Or more. Start practicing mentally stimulating activities. Give the dog the right amount of exercise and activity.

If the dog have separation anxiety; the dog is distressed and anxious, you need to deal with this. Before you’ve been able to train the dog to properly be alone, you might have to make arrangements so the dog is not left while he can’t handle it.

Do you have to crate the dog because they’re getting distressed when left outside the crate?

Don’t. Just because the dog doesn’t appear distressed when in the crate, doesn’t mean they’re not. Dogs can choose to deal with stress through passivity and by “shutting down”. This can also be because of learned helplessness. They have learned that what ever they do, they can’t affect their situation and therefore they give up. In this case you should properly train your dog to accept being alone.

Do you crate your dog because they love their crate and they even go in there voluntarily sometimes?

Don’t. Just because the dog sees the crate as a nice resting place sometimes, doesn’t mean they like being forced in there for hours and hours everyday. You’re perfectly allowed to have the crate available for your dog to choose when and when not they want to be in there. If they love to be in their crate, they have the option to be in there. There’s no force needed to offer your dog a cozy place.
 
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