Alert: New Strain of Parvo
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  1. #1
    Senior Member poodleholic's Avatar
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    Alert: New Strain of Parvo

    Thought maybe I should put this here, since the other forum is regarding health questions. This isn't a question, it's an alert, so . . .here you go. Oh, and note the info on the brands of Parvo vaccine - pretty scary.

    Please feel free to cross-post.
    Lynne Davis


    To: Local Veterinarians, Groomers, Boarding Facilities, Rescue
    Groups, and Shelters
    From: Wendy Swift DVM, Veterinary Medical Director of the HSKC
    Date: August 20, 2008
    Re: Please Read!!!!!! New Parvo Strain Hits West Michigan


    Parvo 2c has been suspected as the cause of death for at least three
    adult canines in Kent County and surrounding areas. Two of the three
    dogs had a known previous vaccine history and tested positive on the
    Idexx Snap Parvo Test. The most current information on Parvo 2c from
    the vaccine/shelter medicine specialists around the country is as
    follows:
    Disease: Parvo 2c is a highly virulent strain of the parvo virus that
    is extremely fatal in puppies and adult dogs. This strain of parvo
    attacks the circulatory organs approximately 24 hours before
    attacking the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, by the time a dog is
    presented for lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea it is generally too
    late.
    Diagnosis: Parvo 2c is detectable on the Idexx Snap Test, but it has
    been showing as a weak positive on many tests. Viral isolation is the
    best way to confirm the diagnosis, but it is not going to assist with
    diagnosis upon presentation.
    Treatment: Conservative treatment with supportive care has been
    rarely successful. Plasma transfusions from recovered dogs have shown
    to yield the best treatment success at around 64% survival rate.
    Prevention: Schering-Plough (SP) and Intervet vaccinations have been
    proven to be 100% effective in preventing this strain of parvo. If
    you have any questions in regards to SP vaccinations please call 1-
    800-224-5318 (SP technical support). Fort Dodge vaccines were
    effective in less than 90% of the tested dogs/puppies, Pfizer was
    less than 70% effective in preventing disease, and Merial was less
    than 50% effective. This data was obtained from an independent
    source, and at this time the only published data is an article from
    Schering-Plough (S/P).
    Cleaning Protocols: There are only two products that kill this virus
    with a ten minute contact time. Trifectant and bleach (1/2 cup/gallon
    dilution) will successfully kill Parvo 2c. All other products that
    claim to kill parvo are not effective per Dr. Hall (Vaccination/
    Shelter Specialist at SP) !!!!!!
    Prognosis: The prognosis is extremely poor. Most puppies or dogs die
    acutely from the cardiac components of the disease process. If GI
    signs are present, the disease has progressed and is most likely
    fatal.
    Please feel free to call me with any questions (616) 791-8218. Over
    seven veterinary clinics have seen this type of disease locally. The
    citizens of Kent County need to be aware of the risk associated with
    this disease. Please inform your clients and protect the canines in
    your area.
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  3. #2
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    Re: Alert: New Strain of Parvo

    Quote Originally Posted by poodleholic View Post
    Thought maybe I should put this here, since the other forum is regarding health questions. This isn't a question, it's an alert, so . . .here you go. Oh, and note the info on the brands of Parvo vaccine - pretty scary.

    Please feel free to cross-post.
    Lynne Davis


    To: Local Veterinarians, Groomers, Boarding Facilities, Rescue
    Groups, and Shelters
    From: Wendy Swift DVM, Veterinary Medical Director of the HSKC
    Date: August 20, 2008
    Re: Please Read!!!!!! New Parvo Strain Hits West Michigan


    Parvo 2c has been suspected as the cause of death for at least three
    adult canines in Kent County and surrounding areas. Two of the three
    dogs had a known previous vaccine history and tested positive on the
    Idexx Snap Parvo Test. The most current information on Parvo 2c from
    the vaccine/shelter medicine specialists around the country is as
    follows:
    Disease: Parvo 2c is a highly virulent strain of the parvo virus that
    is extremely fatal in puppies and adult dogs. This strain of parvo
    attacks the circulatory organs approximately 24 hours before
    attacking the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, by the time a dog is
    presented for lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea it is generally too
    late.
    Diagnosis: Parvo 2c is detectable on the Idexx Snap Test, but it has
    been showing as a weak positive on many tests. Viral isolation is the
    best way to confirm the diagnosis, but it is not going to assist with
    diagnosis upon presentation.
    Treatment: Conservative treatment with supportive care has been
    rarely successful. Plasma transfusions from recovered dogs have shown
    to yield the best treatment success at around 64% survival rate.
    Prevention: Schering-Plough (SP) and Intervet vaccinations have been
    proven to be 100% effective in preventing this strain of parvo. If
    you have any questions in regards to SP vaccinations please call 1-
    800-224-5318 (SP technical support). Fort Dodge vaccines were
    effective in less than 90% of the tested dogs/puppies, Pfizer was
    less than 70% effective in preventing disease, and Merial was less
    than 50% effective. This data was obtained from an independent
    source, and at this time the only published data is an article from
    Schering-Plough (S/P).
    Cleaning Protocols: There are only two products that kill this virus
    with a ten minute contact time. Trifectant and bleach (1/2 cup/gallon
    dilution) will successfully kill Parvo 2c. All other products that
    claim to kill parvo are not effective per Dr. Hall (Vaccination/
    Shelter Specialist at SP) !!!!!!
    Prognosis: The prognosis is extremely poor. Most puppies or dogs die
    acutely from the cardiac components of the disease process. If GI
    signs are present, the disease has progressed and is most likely
    fatal.
    Please feel free to call me with any questions (616) 791-8218. Over
    seven veterinary clinics have seen this type of disease locally. The
    citizens of Kent County need to be aware of the risk associated with
    this disease. Please inform your clients and protect the canines in
    your area.

    I put further information on this down in the health forum and asked for it to be stickied but it was not......

    I think it got pushed down the board now.... I will try and find it and bump it up
    s
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  4. #3
    Super Moderator cshellenberger's Avatar
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    Re: Alert: New Strain of Parvo

    Shalva,
    I'll move this one and stick it in Health.
    Carla
    "A fool gives full vent to his anger, but a wise man keeps himself under control" Proverbs 29:11
    Quick reply to this message Reply  

  5. #4
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    Re: Alert: New Strain of Parvo

    Canine Parvovirus Type 2c in the United States
    Dr. Ben Hatler, NEOTECH, LLC

    For many years vaccinated dogs have suffered and died from Canine
    Parvovirus (CPV) infections. Since vaccination failed to protect these dogs, people
    speculated that a new form of CPV was in our midst. Their speculation has
    been substantiated by the recent press release from Oklahoma State University
    which stated that a new form of CPV (CPV-2c) has been identified in dogs
    across the United States by the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic laboratory 1.
    The press release stated that the 2c strain affects puppies and adults, can
    attack the heart and intestines, and that the mortality can be quite high.
    The most alarming aspect of the press release is its implication that
    currently available vaccines are not protective against this lethal CPV-2c strain.
    This is obviously troubling news fore all dog owners. So we must ask, is
    the press release completely true, or does it contain exaggerations intended
    to whip up unnecessary hysteria?

    The press release is based on the results of a study published by Dr. Kapil
    and his colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Microbiolgy2. In this study,
    tissue and fecal samples were collected between February 2006 and August
    2007 from 54 dogs with confirmed CPV infections. Canine parvovirus type 2c was
    identified in 48% of the dogs while CPV-2b was identified in 46% of the
    dogs. The researchers also that 66% of the dogs infected with various strains of
    CPV had previously received a vaccination.

    Since implications of the press release are so frightening, we must dig
    deeper into the CPV-2c story to fully understand what it means for dog owners
    and breeders. The emergence of this new strain of CPV is not surprising
    considering the history of CPV and the high rate of viral evolution associated
    with its initial emergence in the 1970s. Since the emergence of CPV type 2
    (CPV-2) in the 1970s the virus has mutated. The v irus mutated into 2 strains
    known as CPV-2a and CPV-2b. In 2000 scientists in Italy were the first to
    report the emergence of CPV-2c in dogs. Since that report, CPV-2c has been
    reported in Western Europe, Asia, and South America.

    Now that a new strain of CPV is present throughout the world, the question
    arises: What is meant by the term new strain? We need to realize that the
    term new strain actually means genetic variant. In order for a strain of
    parvovirus to be labeled a new strain, at least 1 of its approximately 5000
    nucleotides must be different from a previously identified strain. This is the
    case of the CPV-2c identified in the United States. Genetically speaking,
    CPV-2c differs from CPV-2b by only a few nucleotides. In other words, from a
    genetic standpoint, the new strain(CPV_2c) is over 99% identical to the old
    strain (CPV-2b).

    So there is very little genetic difference between CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and
    CPV-2c. Does this sligh t genetic variation make CPV-2c biologically different
    from CPV-2a or CPV-2b? The most prolific researcher of CPV-2c in Italy
    concluded in a research report that CPV variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) have similar
    biological behaviors3. In that research report, tissue distribution of CPV was
    similar across all 3 genetic variants of CPV. Canine parvovirus type 2a,
    2b, and 2c were all found in the intestines and in the heart. So the fact that
    CPV infects the heart and the intestines is not new information and is not
    specific to only CPV-2c. In another paper that investigated the occurrence
    of CPV-2c in the United States, researchers stated that dogs infected with
    CPV-2c exhibited clinical signs and outcomes that were similar to dogs infected
    with CPV-2a and CPV-2b4. So death of dogs due to CPV infection (be it 2-a,
    2-b, or 2-c) is not new information and it is erroneous to suggest that
    CPV-2c is more lethal then older CPV strains.

    Since CPV-2c has been discovered in the United Stat es, what are dog owners
    and breeders to do? According to the press release, new vaccines should be
    formulated since previously vaccinated dogs have contracted CPV-2c. Should
    you switch vaccines? Should you demand vaccine manufacturers make a new
    vaccine that protects against CPV-2c? The answer to the 2 previous questions
    would be yes if we did not have some suitable vaccines currently available for
    use. With the information now available in the scientific literature, I
    believe that there is no reason to suggest that the currently available effective
    vaccines will not protect against CPV-2c. Let me explain why I believe this
    to be true.

    First, a recent research report indicated that one of the original modified
    live CPV vaccines (based on an old strain of CPV) was protective against
    CPV-2c. This study reported that after CPV-2c challenge, vaccinated pups did not
    become ill while unvaccinated pups showed clinical signs of canine
    parvovirus5. In other words, on of the fir st vaccines, which was formulated years
    before CPV-2c was identified, was able to induce protection against this new
    genetic variant known as CPV-2c.

    Second, certain effective CPV vaccines protect puppies against both CPV-2a
    and CPV-2b. Since there is very little genetic variant and no known
    biological differences between CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c, why wouldn't these
    effective CPV vaccines protect against CPV-2c? To my Knowledge, no one has data to
    definitively answer the question posed above.

    Third, NEOPARĀ© has been tested in a kennel in Oklahoma where this new
    genetic variant was diagnosed by the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic
    Laboratory. NEOPARĀ©, when used properly, stopped the CPV-2c in its tracks just like
    it stops a CPV-2a and CPV-2b outbreak.

    One disturbing aspect of the press release and Dr. Kapil's paper was that
    vaccines do not protect against CPV-2c. In Dr. Kapil's study, 66% of the dogs
    were previously vaccinated. It is important to rea lize that not all
    vaccines stimulate protection after just one, or multiple, doses. Immunity is often
    not stimulated by vaccination if the animal is stressed, has a suppressed
    immune system, or if the vaccine used is sub-potent (few vaccine particles
    per dose). Unfortunately, the complete vaccination history for each dog in Dr
    Kapil's study was not provided. So, it is possible these dogs could have
    been vaccinated after they were exposed to CPV or they may have been vaccinated
    with a sub-potent vaccine prior to CPV exposure. Many sub-potent vaccines
    are on the market today and were not formulated to work in the face of the
    high level of maternal antibody when pups are first vaccinated at 5 to 7 weeks
    of age. This high level of maternal antibody can render a sub-potent
    vaccine ineffective. Another important point of Dr. Kapil's study to consider is
    that vaccinated dogs were infected with CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Of the 36
    vaccinated dogs in which CPV was identified, type 2b was presen t in 15 dogs and type
    2c was present in 19 dogs. So, not only did vaccination fail to protect
    these dogs against CPV-2c, vaccination also failed to protect them against the
    older genetic variations of CPV. Clearly, vaccines do not immunize 100% of
    vaccinated dogs and this is also not new information.

    At the present time, we know very little about CPV-2c. However, information
    present in the scientific literature suggests that CPV-2c is very similar
    to CPV-2a and CPV-2b; and, that vaccines developed prior to the discovery of
    CPV-2c protect dogs from CPV-2c challenge. Even though the full CPV-2c story
    has not yet been established, this has not stopped people from making
    predictions of doom and gloom. Lets not get bogged down by the press release
    intended to whip up hysteria in hopes of creating an economic opportunity for a
    research institution. Let's wait until we have more relevant facts about
    this genetic variant before we recommend changing the existing vaccination
    protoc ols that have been so successful for so many years. In essence, all that
    Dr. Kapil's report stated is that CPV-2c (along with other old genetic
    variants of CPV) has been identified in previously vaccinated dogs in the United
    States. So the implications of the press release of widespread death due to
    an extremely pathogenic new strain of CPV are a bit far reaching. Let me be
    clear. Dr. Kapil's study is scientifically sound and the results are clear
    and straightforward, but the press release is an exaggeration of what is
    known and speculates on what we do not know.

    References

    1 _http://www.cvhs.okstate.edu/index.php?o_
    (http://www.cvhs.okstate.edu/index.php?o) .. itemid=291
    _<http://www.cvhs.okstate.edu/index.ph...k=view&amp;id= 437&amp;itemid=291>_ (http://www.
    cvhs.okstate.edu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=437&item id=291)

    2Kupil, S., Cooper, E., Lamm, C., Murry, B., Rezabek, G., Johnson III, L.,
    Campbell, G., Johnson, B. 2007 Canine Parvovirus types 2c and 2b
    circulating in North American dogs in 2006 and 2007. J. Clin. Microbial.,
    45(12):4044-4047

    3Decaro, N., Martella, V., Elia, G., Desario, C., Campolo, M., Lorusso, F.,
    Colaianni, M. L., Lorusso, A., Buon-
    avoglia, C. 2007 Tissue distribution of the antigenic variants of canine
    parvovirus type 2 in dogs. Vet Microbial. 2007 Mar 31 1;121(1-2):39-44

    4Hong, C., Decaro, N., Desario, C., Tanner, P., Pardo, M.C., Sanchez, S.,
    Buonavoglia, C., Saliki, J.T. 2007 Occurrence of canine parvovirus type 2c in
    the United States. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 19:535-539

    5Spibey, N., Greenwood, N.M., Sutton, D., Chalmers, W.SK., Tarpey, I. 2008
    Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with
    type2c virus. Vet. Microbiol. Apr 1;128(1-2):48-55. Epub. 2007 Oct 2.

    Canine Parvovirus Type 2c in the United States
    Dr. Ben Hatler, NEOTECH, LLC
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